Posts tagged ‘state’

Organized Retail Crime (ORC): Private Sector and Law Enforcement Collaborate to Deter and Investigate Theft

Organized Retail Crime (ORC): Private Sector and Law Enforcement Collaborate to Deter and Investigate Theft

by Eileen R. Larence
Paperback, 49 pages, 2011, $20.00
ISBN: 9781437987577

Each year organized groups of professional shoplifters steal or fraudulently obtain billions of dollars in merchandise to resell in an activity known as ORC. These stolen goods can also be sold on online marketplaces, a practice known as “e-fencing.” This report assessed ORC and e-fencing.

It addresses: (1) types of efforts that select retailers, state and local law enforcement, and federal agencies are undertaking to combat ORC; (2) the extent to which tools or mechanisms exist to facilitate collaboration and info. sharing among these ORC stakeholders; and (3) steps that online marketplaces have taken to combat ORC and e-fencing, and additional actions retailers and law enforcement think may enhance these efforts. Illus. This is a print on demand report.

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August 2, 2011 at 7:00 am Leave a comment

New Government Report: Renditions: Constraints Imposed by Laws on Torture

Constraints Imposed by Laws on Torture
by Michael John Garcia
Paperback, 24 pages, 2009, $20.00
ISBN: 1437920632

Persons suspected of criminal or terrorist activity may be transferred from one State (i.e., country) to another for arrest, detention, and/or interrogation. Commonly, this is done through extradition, by which one State surrenders a person within its jurisdiction to a requesting State via a formal legal process, typically established by treaty.

Far less often, such transfers are effectuated through a process known as “extraordinary rendition” or “irregular rendition.” These terms have often been used to refer to the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one State to another. Although the particularities regarding the usage of extraordinary renditions and the legal authority behind such renditions are not publicly available, various U.S. officials have acknowledged the practice’s existence.

During the Bush Admin., there was some controversy as to the usage of renditions by the U.S., particularly with regard to the alleged transfer of suspected terrorists to countries known to employ harsh interrogation techniques that may rise to the level of torture, purportedly with the knowledge or acquiescence of the U.S.

This report discusses relevant international and domestic law restricting the transfer of persons to foreign states for the purpose of torture. The U.N. Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT), and its domestic implementing legislation (the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998) impose the primary legal restrictions on the transfer of persons to countries where they would face torture.

Both CAT and U.S. implementing legislation generally prohibit the rendition of persons to countries in most cases where they would more likely than not be tortured, though there are arguably limited exceptions to this prohibition. Under U.S. regulations implementing CAT, a person may be transferred to a country that provides credible assurances that the rendered person will not be tortured.

Neither CAT nor its implementing legislation prohibit the rendition of persons to countries where they would be subject to harsh treatment not rising to the level of torture. Besides CAT, additional obligations may be imposed upon U.S. rendition practice via the Geneva Conventions, the War Crimes Act (as amended by the Military Commissions Act (P.L. 109-366)), the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), and the Universal Declaration on Human Rights.

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August 10, 2010 at 6:00 am Leave a comment

New Government Report: Performance of 287(g) Agreements between Immigration and Customs Enforcement and State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies

Performance of 287(g) Agreements between Immigration and Customs Enforcement and State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies
by Richard L. Skinner
Paperback, 87 pages, 2010, ISBN: 9781437933901, $25.00

State and local police officers who enforce federal immigration laws are not adequately screened, trained or supervised, and the civil rights of the immigrants they deal with are not consistently protected, according to a report released Friday by the Department of Homeland Security inspector general, reports the New York Times.

The Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency (ICE) delegates federal immigration enforcement authorities to state and local law enforcement agencies through its authority under section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.

This report examines the performance of 287(g) agreements with state and local authorities. ICE permits designated officers to perform certain immigration enforcement functions.

This report observed instances in which ICE and participating law enforcement agencies were not operating in compliance with the terms of the agreements.

It also noted several areas in which ICE had not instituted controls to promote effective program operations and address related risks. Includes recommendations. Illustrations.

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August 4, 2010 at 12:01 pm Leave a comment

New Government Report: Bank Mergers and Banking Structure in the United States, 1980-98

Bank Mergers and Banking Structure in the United States, 1980-98
by Stephen A. Rhoades
Paperback, 33 pages, 2000, $25.00
ISBN: 9781437933659

After 1980, the U.S. banking industry experienced a sustained and unprecedented level of merger activity that has substantially affected banking structure.

From 1980 through 1998, there were approximately 8,000 mergers, involving about $2.4 trillion in acquired assets. From 1990 to 1999 several mergers occurred that, at the time of occurrence, were the largest bank mergers in U.S. history.

This report describes various facets of bank merger activity and some of the changes in U.S. banking structure that occurred from 1980 through 1998. A primary force underlying the sustained merger movement in banking since 1980 was the gradual removal of state and federal restrictions on geographic expansion in banking. Charts and tables.

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August 4, 2010 at 7:00 am Leave a comment

New Government Report: Repairing a Broken System: Protecting Consumers in Debt Collection Litigation and Arbitration (ISBN: 9781437936350)

Repairing a Broken System: Protecting Consumers in Debt Collection Litigation and Arbitration (ISBN: 9781437936350)
By Jon Leibowitz
(Paperback, 106 pages, 2010, $30.00)

Creditors and collectors seek to recover consumer debts through the use of litigation and arbitration. But, neither litigation nor arbitration currently provides adequate protection for consumers. The system for resolving disputes about consumer debts is broken.

To fix the system, federal and state governments, the debt collection industry, and other stakeholders should make a variety of significant reforms in litigation and arbitration so that the system is both efficient and fair.

Contents of this report: Introduction; Litigation and Arbitration Proceedings; Conclusion. Appendices: Debt Collection Roundtable (DCR) Panelists; Contributors to DCR; Agendas for DCR; DCR Public Comments; Sample State Debt Collection Checklists. Illustrations.

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July 23, 2010 at 9:00 am Leave a comment


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