Posts tagged ‘terrorist’
Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations
by Christopher M. Blanchard
Paperback, 51 pages, 2009, $30.00
Contents: (I) Recent Developments; (II) Background: Saudi Arabia’s Political Development; Saudi-U.S. Relations, 1931-2001; September 11, 2001, and its Aftermath; The 9/11 Commission Report; Saudi Responses; Recent Assessments; Terrorist Financing Concerns; Toward a New Relationship?; New Bilateral Agreements;
(III) Recent Congressional Interest in Saudi Arabia: U.S. Foreign Assistance to Saudi Arabia and Congressional Prohibitions; International Military Education and Training (IMET); Counterterrorism Assistance; Prohibitions on Foreign Assistance; FY2010 Appropriations Debate; U.S. Arms Sales to Saudi Arabia; Background; Criticism and Action in the 110th Congress; BAE Corruption Inquiry;
(IV) Current Issues in U.S.-Saudi Relations; U.S.-Saudi Military Cooperation: U.S. Military Training Mission in Saudi Arabia (USMTM); Saudi Arabian National Guard Modernization Program (PM-SANG); Office of Program Mgt. Ministry of Interior – Facilities Security Forces (OPM MOI-FSF); Counterterrorism; Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula; Combating Extremism; The Arab-Israeli Conflict; Saudi-Palestinian Relations; Saudi Peace Proposals; Iraq;Saudi Policy Priorities in Iraq; Saudi-Iraqi Diplomatic and Economic Relations; Economic Relations and Trade; U.S.-Saudi Trade; U.S. Oil Imports and Saudi Policy; U.S.-Saudi Foreign Direct Investment; Saudi Boycott of Israel and WTO Membership; Human Rights, Religious Freedom, and Political Reform; Political Reform Debates and Elections; Leadership and Succession; Social Reform Debates and Recent Leadership Changes; Human Rights; Religious Freedom; Consular Issues;
(V) Further Reading and Historical Resources; Appendix A. Recent Proposed Arms Sales; Appendix B. Text of Saudi Peace Initiatives. Figures.
Constraints Imposed by Laws on Torture
by Michael John Garcia
Paperback, 24 pages, 2009, $20.00
Persons suspected of criminal or terrorist activity may be transferred from one State (i.e., country) to another for arrest, detention, and/or interrogation. Commonly, this is done through extradition, by which one State surrenders a person within its jurisdiction to a requesting State via a formal legal process, typically established by treaty.
Far less often, such transfers are effectuated through a process known as “extraordinary rendition” or “irregular rendition.” These terms have often been used to refer to the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one State to another. Although the particularities regarding the usage of extraordinary renditions and the legal authority behind such renditions are not publicly available, various U.S. officials have acknowledged the practice’s existence.
During the Bush Admin., there was some controversy as to the usage of renditions by the U.S., particularly with regard to the alleged transfer of suspected terrorists to countries known to employ harsh interrogation techniques that may rise to the level of torture, purportedly with the knowledge or acquiescence of the U.S.
This report discusses relevant international and domestic law restricting the transfer of persons to foreign states for the purpose of torture. The U.N. Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT), and its domestic implementing legislation (the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998) impose the primary legal restrictions on the transfer of persons to countries where they would face torture.
Both CAT and U.S. implementing legislation generally prohibit the rendition of persons to countries in most cases where they would more likely than not be tortured, though there are arguably limited exceptions to this prohibition. Under U.S. regulations implementing CAT, a person may be transferred to a country that provides credible assurances that the rendered person will not be tortured.
Neither CAT nor its implementing legislation prohibit the rendition of persons to countries where they would be subject to harsh treatment not rising to the level oftorture. Besides CAT, additional obligations may be imposed upon U.S. rendition practice via the Geneva Conventions, the War Crimes Act (as amended by the Military Commissions Act (P.L. 109-366)), the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), and the Universal Declaration on Human Rights.
Questioning Supreme Court Nominees About Their Views on Legal or Constitutional Issues: A Recurring Issue (ISBN: 9781437935899)
By Denis Steven Rutkus
(Paperback, 25 pages, 2010, $20.00)
Contents of this report: (I) The Rise of Islamist Militancy in Southeast Asia: Overview; The Rise of Al Qaeda in Southeast Asia; (II) The Jemaah Islamiyah Network: History of Jemaah Islamiyah; Jemaah Islamiyah’s Relationship to Al Qaeda; Jemaah Islamiyah’s Size and Structure; Major Plots; (III) Indonesia: Recent Events; Background; The Bali Bombings and Other JI attacks in Indonesia; The Trial and Release of Baasyir; U.S.-Indonesia Cooperation; (IV) The Philippines: Abu Sayyaf; The MILF; The Philippine Communist Party (CPP); U.S. Support for Philippine Military Operations; (V) Thailand: Southern Insurgency; Approaches of Recent Governments; Current Government’s Approach; Little Evidence of Transnational Elements; Leadership of Insurgency Unclear; U.S.-Thai Cooperation; (VI) Malaysia: Recent Events; A Muslim Voice of Moderation; Maritime Concerns; Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism in Malaysia; Terrorist Groups in Malaysia; Malaysia’s Counter-Terrorism Efforts and Their Critics; U.S.-Malaysia Counter-Terrorism Cooperation; (VII) Singapore: U.S.-Singapore Cooperation; Enhanced Homeland Security. Maps.
New Government Report: Immigration Visa Issuances and Grounds for Exclusion: Policy and Trends (ISBN: 143793126X)
Immigration Visa Issuances and Grounds for Exclusion: Policy and Trends (ISBN: 143793126X)
By Ruth Ellen Wasem (Paperback, 27 pages, 2010, $20)
At the recent U.S. Conference of Mayors, mayors from across the country condemned Arizona’s SB 1070 law and pressed Congress to pass immigration reform.
Contents of this report: (1) Introduction: Policy Context; Background; (2) Visa Issuance Policy: Disqualification; Exclusion; Permanent Admissions (Immigrant Visas): Procedures; Trends; Temporary Admissions (Nonimmigrant Visas): Procedures; Presumption; Trends; (3) Grounds for Exclusion: Brief Legislative History; Communicable Diseases; Criminal History; Security and Terrorist Concerns; Public Charge; Labor Market Protections; Illegal Entrants and Immigration Law Violations; Ineligible for Citizenship; Illegal Presence or Previously Removed; (4) Analysis of Visa Inadmissibility Determinations: Inadmissible Immigrants, and Nonimmigrants; (5) Concluding Observations. Charts and tables.
New Government Report: Terrorist Attacks on Commercial Airlines: Federal Criminal Prohibitions (ISBN: 1437928471)
Terrorist Attacks on Commercial Airlines: Federal Criminal Prohibitions
By Charles Doyle (Paperback, 16 pages, 2010, $15)
In December 2009, Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, a Nigerian man who allegedly ignited an incendiary device on a flight from Amsterdam to Detroit was charged with attempting to destroy the plane, according to NPR.
Federal authorities can prosecute terrorist attacks on commercial airlines under a wide variety of federal statutes. Some of those statutes outlaw crimes committed aboard a commercial airliner; some, crimes committed against the aircraft itself; others, crimes involving the use of firearms or explosives; still others, crimes committed for terrorist purposes. Although most apply when committed within the U.S., many apply to terrorist attacks overseas.
Contents of this report: Introduction; Crimes Aboard an Aircraft; Crimes Against an Aircraft; Crimes Involving Destructive Devices; Other Terrorist Crimes; Crimes Against Protected Individuals; Accomplice Liability; Selected Procedural Aspects; Pertinent Penalties and Territorial Jurisdictional Factors.
New Government Report: Maritime Security: Varied Actions Taken to Enhance Cruise Ship Security, but Some Concerns Remain (ISBN: 9781437933260)
Maritime Security: Varied Actions Taken to Enhance Cruise Ship Security, but Some Concerns Remain (ISBN: 9781437933260)
By Stephen L. Caldwell (Paperback, 52 pages, 2010, $20)
The Canada Free Press reported earlier in the week that cruise ships could become greater targets for terrorists, especially Somali pirates:
Agency officials reported in January 2010 that there had been no credible threats against cruise ships in the prior 12 months, but also noted the presence of terrorist groups that have the capability to attack a cruise ship. Agency officials and terrorism researchers also identified terrorists boarding a cruise ship as a concern.
Over 9 million passengers departed from U.S. ports on cruise ships in 2008, and according to agency officials, cruise ships are attractive terrorist targets.
This report addresses the extent to which: (1) the Coast Guard, the lead federal agency on maritime security, assessed risk in accordance with the Deptartment of Homeland Security’s guidance and identified risks; and (2) federal agencies, cruise ship and facility operators, and law enforcement entities have taken actions to protect cruise ships and their facilities.
The report reviewed relevant requirements and agency documents on maritime security, analyzed 2006 through 2008 security operations data, and made observations at seven ports. Includes recommendations. Charts and tables.
New Government Report: Terrorist Watchlist Screening: FBI Has Enhanced Its Use of Information from Firearm and Explosives Background Checks to Support Counterterrorism Efforts: Congressional Testimony
Terrorist Watchlist Screening: FBI Has Enhanced Its Use of Information from Firearm and Explosives Background Checks to Support Counterterrorism Efforts: Congressional Testimony
By Eileen R. Larence (Paperback, 17 pages, 2010, $15)
Membership in a terrorist organization does not prohibit a person from possessing firearms or explosives under current federal law. However, for homeland security and other purposes, the FBI is notified when a firearm or explosives background check involves an individual on the terrorist watchlist.
In light of the recent failed Times Square bombing, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg told the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee:
“When gun dealers run background checks, should F.B.I. agents have the authority to block sales of guns and explosives to those on the terror watch lists — and deemed too dangerous to fly?” the New York Times reported the Mayor asking. “I believe strongly that they should.”
According to GAO, from February 2004 to February 2010, 1,228 people listed on an FBI terror watchlist had tried to buy weapons. About 90 percent, some 1,119, had succeeded. Faisal Shahzad, the alleged bomber, was not on the list in March.
This statement addresses: (1) how many checks have resulted in matches with the terrorist watchlist; (2) how the FBI uses information from these checks for counterterrorism purposes; and (3) pending legislation that would give the Attorney General authority to deny certain checks. Includes recommendations. Charts and tables.